Lithium ion battery
In recent years, the development of power lithium-ion battery in China is rapid, which is mainly due to the strong support and correct guidance of national policies for the new energy automobile industry. Driven by the national energy conservation and environmental protection policies, the sales volume of new energy vehicles is increasing year by year. As the main supporting body of new energy vehicles, the market demand is naturally rising. The high energy density and high stability lithium-ion battery of vehicle specification class has expanded the prospect of the electric vehicle industry, and has been preliminarily recognized by the government and the market.
As a kind of rechargeable battery, lithium-ion battery mainly relies on the movement of lithium ion between the positive and negative electrodes. The upstream raw materials of lithium-ion battery industry mainly include nickel, cobalt, manganese, lithium ore and graphite ore, which form electrolyte, positive and negative electrode materials, electrode base materials, diaphragm, etc.; the midstream is to assemble the diaphragm, positive and negative electrode materials, electrolyte, electrode base materials into cells for manufacturing and sealing; the downstream is the application field.
In fact, people are not unfamiliar with lithium-ion batteries, which have been widely used in smart phones, laptops, tablets and other portable electronic devices. According to the concept of application field, lithium-ion battery can be divided into three types: consumption type, power type and energy storage type.
Specifically, lithium-ion batteries can be divided into lithium manganese oxide, lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel cobalt manganese. Nowadays, many car manufacturers choose lithium nickel cobalt manganese for electric vehicles, which is commonly known as ternary lithium-ion batteries. Compared with other types of lithium-ion batteries, ternary lithium-ion batteries have higher energy density and can make the car run farther under the same volume, so they are favored and recognized by many consumers.
At the same time, at present, almost all smart phone batteries are lithium-ion batteries, which generate electricity through the movement of lithium ions in the electrolyte solution required by the chemical reaction at the positive and negative poles, so as to supply power for the mobile phone. Due to the high efficiency of charge and discharge, relatively light and compact, this kind of lithium-ion battery has gradually become the mainstream of cell phone batteries.
In 2019, the total installed capacity of lithium-ion batteries for new energy vehicles in China is 62.2gwh, up 9.3% year-on-year, with rapid growth. Some analysts pointed out that the market scale of lithium electronic battery industry will continue to expand in the future. It is estimated that by 2025, the scale of China's lithium electronic battery industry will exceed 600 billion yuan.
It is worth mentioning that with the development of intelligent manufacturing industry, lithium-ion battery, as a new industry, is at an important turning point from naive to mature. In the process of high-quality development of lithium battery industry, large-scale improvement of industrial chain and intensified competition among enterprises are two obvious signs.
At present, lithium-ion batteries have become the preferred technology for many applications, attracting the attention of many market participants in the supply chain. Battery R & D laboratory, material supplier, battery component developer and manufacturer, battery and battery group manufacturer and system integrator are all stepping up the pace of layout, striving to achieve breakthroughs in key materials and core technologies of lithium battery.
In addition to the development of high-performance lithium electronic battery products, it is also important to do a good job in the recycling of waste lithium electronic batteries. According to the report released by the International Market Research Institute markets and markets, the global lithium-ion battery recycling market in 2019 will be about 1.5 billion US dollars (about 10.5 billion yuan), which is expected to increase to 12.2 billion US dollars (about 85.2 billion yuan) by 2025. It is also helpful to improve the utilization rate of resources and reduce environmental pollution by promoting the disassembly of lithium-ion battery components and reuse of available components.
From the early lead-acid batteries, to the nickel hydrogen batteries made by Japanese companies such as Toyota, to the lithium-ion batteries used by Tesla roader in 2008, the traditional liquid lithium-ion batteries have dominated the power battery market for many years. In the future, the energy density and safety requirements of the industry users for lithium electronic batteries will be further strengthened, and ensuring the practicability and safety of lithium electronic batteries will become a major issue for the entrants.
At present, in the environment of decreasing cost, increasing efficiency and increasing battery capacity, electric vehicles which actively respond to the call of national energy conservation and emission reduction have gradually become an important tool for people's daily travel. However, the practical application of all kinds of new tools can not be separated from the battery.